Relationship: Relationship 43996

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    After this initial ‘Jordanian-Chinese’, Palestinian and Egyptian stage, the criminal network then turned towards Syria to run its illegal activities more efficiently. In Damascus, activities in counterfeit medicines for the Middle East were developed with Abu Afifeh as leader, originally based in Jordan. The manufacturing equipment was imported from China and Austria. But the Syrian authorities identified distribution hubs in Aleppo, Idlib, Hims and Hamas.

    Fake Pharma